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This article provides an overview of peer-to-peer networking, including a description of peer-to-peer networking scenarios. This paper also describe the goals of Microsoft® Windows® Peer-to-Peer Networking and how it works, including detailed descriptions of IPv6 and NAT traversal, peer discovery and name resolution, graphing, grouping, replicated storage, and searching.

Peer-to-Peer Networking Overview
Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking
How Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking Works
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Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor, vast memory, and a large hard disk, none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications.

RTC exists today. Computer users can chat and have voice or video conversations with their peers today. However, many of the existing programs and their communications protocols rely on servers to function. If you are participating in an ad-hoc wireless network or are a part of an isolated network, you are unable to use these RTC facilities. Peer-to-peer technology allows the extension of RTC technologies to these additional networking environments.

Similar to RTC, real-time game play exists today. There are many Web-based game sites that cater to the gaming community via the Internet. They offer the ability to find other gamers with similar interests and play a game together. The problem is that the game sites exist only on the Internet and are geared toward the avid gamer who wants to play against the best gamers in the world. These sites track and provide the statistics to help in the process. However, these sites do not allow a gamer to set up an ad-hoc game among friends in a variety of networking environments. Peer-to-peer networking can provide this capability.

Shared workspace applications allow for the creation of ad-hoc workgroups and then allow the workgroup owners to populate the shared workspace with the tools and content that will allow the group to solve a problem. This could include message boards, productivity tools, and files.

A subset of project workspace sharing is the ability to share files. Although this ability exists today with the current version of Windows, it can be enhanced through peer-to-peer networking to make file content available in an easy and friendly way. Allowing easy access to the incredible wealth of content at the edge of the Internet or in ad-hoc computing environments increases the value of network computing.

With wireless connectivity becoming more prevalent, peer-to-peer networking allows you to be online in a group of peers and to be able to share your experiences (such as a sunset, a rock concert, or a vacation cruise) while they are occurring.

Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology. P2P file sharing allows users to access media files such as books, music, movies, and games using a P2P software program that searches for other connected computers on a P2P network to locate the desired content. [1] The nodes (peers) of such networks are end-user computers and distribution servers (not required).

Peer-to-peer file sharing technology has evolved through several design stages from the early networks like Napster , which popularized the technology, to the later models like the BitTorrent protocol. Microsoft uses it for Update distribution (Windows 10) and online playing games (e.g. the mmorpg Skyforge [2] ) use it as their content distribution network for downloading large amounts of data without incurring the dramatic costs for bandwidth inherent when providing just a single source.

Several factors contributed to the widespread adoption and facilitation of peer-to-peer file sharing. These included increasing Internet bandwidth, the widespread digitization of physical media, and the increasing capabilities of residential personal computers. Users were able to transfer either one or more files from one computer to another across the Internet through various file transfer systems and other file-sharing networks. [1]

Peer-to-peer file sharing became popular in 1999 with the introduction of Napster , a file sharing application and a set of central servers that linked people who had files with those who requested files. The central index server indexed the users and their shared content. When someone searched for a file, the server searched all available copies of that file and presented them to the user. The files would be transferred directly between the two private computers. A limitation was that only music files could be shared. [3] Because this process occurred on a central server, however, Napster was held liable for copyright infringement and shut down in July 2001. It later reopened as a pay service. [4]

Napster and eDonkey2000 , which both used a central server-based model, may be classified as the first generation of P2P systems. [5] These systems relied on the operation of the respective central servers, and thus were susceptible to centralized shutdown. The second generation of P2P file sharing encompasses networks like Kazaa, Gnutella and Gnutella2 , which are able to operate without any central servers, thus eliminating the central vulnerability by connecting users remotely to each other. [6]

Peer-to-peer file sharing is also efficient in terms of cost. [7] [8] The system administration overhead is smaller because the user is the provider and usually the provider is the administrator as well. Hence each network can be monitored by the users themselves. At the same time, large servers sometimes require more storage and this increases the cost since the storage has to be rented or bought exclusively for a server. However, usually peer-to-peer file sharing does not require a dedicated server . [9]

There is still ongoing discussion about the economic impact of P2P file sharing. Norbert Michel, a policy analyst at the Heritage Foundation , said that because of "econometric and data issues, studies thus far have produced disparate estimates of file sharing's impact on album sales." [10]

In the book The Wealth of Networks , Yochai Benkler states that peer-to-peer file sharing is economically efficient and that the users pay the full transaction cost and marginal cost of such sharing even if it "throws a monkey wrench into the particular way in which our society has chosen to pay musicians and re-cording executives. This trades off efficiency for longer-term incentive effects for the recording industry. However, it is efficient within the normal meaning of the term in economics in a way that it would not have been had Jack and Jane used subsidized computers or network connections". [11]

Peer-to-peer ( P2P ) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.

Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. [1] Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided. Emerging collaborative P2P systems are going beyond the era of peers doing similar things while sharing resources, and are looking for diverse peers that can bring in unique resources and capabilities to a virtual community thereby empowering it to engage in greater tasks beyond those that can be accomplished by individual peers, yet that are beneficial to all the peers. [2]

While P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, [3] the architecture was popularized by the file sharing system Napster , originally released in 1999. The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.

While P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, [3] the concept was popularized by file sharing systems such as the music-sharing application Napster (originally released in 1999). [ citation needed ] The peer-to-peer movement allowed millions of Internet users to connect "directly, forming groups and collaborating to become user-created search engines, virtual supercomputers, and filesystems." [4] The basic concept of peer-to-peer computing was envisioned in earlier software systems and networking discussions, reaching back to principles stated in the first Request for Comments , RFC 1 . [5]

Therefore, a distributed messaging system that is often likened as an early peer-to-peer architecture was established: USENET . USENET was developed in 1979 and is a system that enforces a decentralized model of control. The basic model is a client-server model from the user or client perspective that offers a self-organizing approach to newsgroup servers. However, news servers communicate with one another as peers to propagate Usenet news articles over the entire group of network servers. The same consideration applies to SMTP email in the sense that the core email-relaying network of mail transfer agents has a peer-to-peer character, while the periphery of e-mail clients and their direct connections is strictly a client-server relationship. [ citation needed ]

In May 1999, with millions more people on the Internet, Shawn Fanning introduced the music and file-sharing application called Napster. [7] Napster was the beginning of peer-to-peer networks, as we know them today, where "participating users establish a virtual network, entirely independent from the physical network, without having to obey any administrative authorities or restrictions." [7]

A peer-to-peer network is designed around the notion of equal peer nodes simultaneously functioning as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the client–server model where communication is usually to and from a central server. A typical example of a file transfer that uses the client-server model is the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) service in which the client and server programs are distinct: the clients initiate the transfer, and the servers satisfy these requests.

Unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay network by design, but rather are formed by nodes that randomly form connections to each other. [11] ( Gnutella , Gossip , and Kazaa are examples of unstructured P2P protocols). [12]

You can download the PEER software from either location, just remember that when you run the PEER software for the first time you enter the username you registered on when you applied for your PEER account.

Energy Citations Database
Bibliographic records with some full text for energy and energy-related scientific and technical information from the Department of Energy, 1948-.

ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center), 1966+      (FULL TEXT)         
ERIC is a comprehensive database containing abstracts of journal articles, reports, curriculum guides, conference proceedings, etc. It covers all areas of education at all age and grade levels.   ERIC Documents 1993+ are now freely available online at this Web site.  The ERIC database, as well as lesson plans, web sites and other useful information, is available on the Web through the Educator's Reference Desk , also free to the public.  (ERIC documents are not available at this site.)

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From LookSmart.  Search and read 5.5 million articles from over 900 publications in a variety of subject areas, from American Demographics to Wrestling Digest .

GrayLit Network.   Developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), in collaboration with DOD/DTIC, NASA, and EPA, the GrayLIT Network is a portal for technical report information generated through federally funded research and development projects.

HighWire Press     (FULL TEXT)
Largest archive of free full-text science journal articles.

Internet Library of Early Journals    (FULL TEXT)
Digitized archive of three British 18th century journals and three 19th century British journals.  Searchable by author and keywords in the title and full-text article.

MagPortal    (FULL TEXT)
Provides access to articles in a variety of magazines, most from 2000+.

Making of America at University of Michigan    (FULL TEXT)
Search or browse eleven 19th century American periodicals.

Making of America at Cornell University    (FULL TEXT)
Search or browse twenty-two 19th century American periodicals (more than 100,000 articles).

National Science Digital Library    (FULL TEXT)
A digital library of "exemplary resources collections and services, organized in support of science education at all levels."  You may ask a science, math, or technology question through the AskNSDL question and answer service.  (FULL TEXT)
The link takes you to the free special collections portion of the archive. Includes newspapers from the 18th century to the present.  A membership fee is required for searching the complete archive.

POPulation information onLINE: abstracts of the worldwide literature on population, family planning, and related health issues. Free to the public to search. PubMED
Free site for searching MEDLINE through the National Library of Medicine.

Peer’s replication and synchronization technology powers multiple Wide Area File Service solutions that provide users with fast access to up-to-date shared files on local Microsoft and NetApp storage servers.

PeerSync Backup Edition for Servers delivers WAN optimized real-time data backup for Windows and NetApp systems thanks to features like byte-level replication, bandwidth throttling and blackout scheduling.

Legacy backup solutions are not designed to meet the challenges faced by organizations that need to efficiently manage and protect data in multiple branch offices. Learn how PeerSync, Microsoft Azure and Microsoft StorSimple work in concert to go beyond traditional backup, and power continuous data availability across a network of global offices for one of the world's largest architectural firms.

Sanjay Gangal of AECCafe and Peer Software CEO Jimmy Tam get together at Autodesk University 2015 to discuss Peer's new partnerships with Microsoft and Newforma, as well as their enhanced file collaboration and data backup solutions designed to meet the specific needs of AEC firms and their project partners. 

Tune in to the TECH ONTAP LIVE channel at NetApp Insight 2015 in Berlin and watch their interview with Peer CEO Jimmy Tam to learn more about Peer's latest offerings and strategies for accelerating cDOT adoption in mixed Windows, NetApp and Cloud ONTAP storage environments. Runtime is 3:40.

Check out how PeerSync Migration Edition  powers data migration projects for Windows to Windows, Windows to NetApp, NetApp Data ONTAP 7-Mode to Clustered Data ONTAP, and EMC to NetApp environments.

The fall marks one of the busiest times of the year for nonprofits that manage peer-to-peer fundraising campaigns, as a number of organizations host their biggest events in September and October. But if results from the spring and summer are any indication, many groups should be prepared to temper their expectations. An informal survey of […]

DATE & TIME: TUESDAY, OCTOBER 18 AT 2:00 PM ET Learn how the Epilepsy Foundation has augmented their walk series with a variety of peer-to-peer fundraising options that allow their supporters to unleash their fundraising creativity in support of the organization. These include unique fundraisers, like Lemonade for Livy (that has become an international awareness and fundraiser with kids), the […]

Thursday, October 6, 2016, at 2 p.m. ET As do-it-yourself fundraising campaigns grow in popularity, nonprofits are quickly learning that these campaigns can’t achieve success by following the traditional donor-stewardship playbook. Since they aren’t built around fixed events, do-it-yourself campaigns follow different rules. To be successful, nonprofits need to take innovative approaches to help DIY participants […]

When American decathlete Ashton Eaton and Canadian heptathlete Brianne Theisen-Eaton begin their quests for gold next week at the 2016 Summer Olympics, they will have big fans at World Vision. Ashton and Brianne are vying to become the first married couple from different countries to win medals in the same Olympics. If they are successful in their […]

DATE & TIME: Wednesday, September 28 at 2:00 pm ET Does this describe your organization? Craving training and support Doing more with less Trying to determine org structure Seeking efficiencies Needing motivation Hoping for stronger team communication and collaboration Listen as The ALS Association’s Kristin McLaughlin and ACG, Inc.’s Rachel Armbruster share key strategies to unite staff […]

The Lego Firewalk Challenge is the latest entry on the growing Big List of Peer-to-Peer Fundraising Campaigns — a resource that catalogs all of the different ways people raise money on behalf of their favorite causes.

Learning Circles provide a social wrapper for online learning, supported by a designated facilitator (who could be you!). Far more than just delivering content, Learning Circles support the development of interpersonal skills and provide a space for participants to meaningfully engage with online educational resources and with their peers.

Delivered locally, Learning Circles bring online learning down to Earth. By identifying courses and subject matter relevant to specific communities and marketing through offline channels, Learning Circles engage individuals who wouldn’t otherwise benefit from online education and transform physical spaces into community learning hubs.

Our 2015 pilot in the Chicago Public Library network demonstrated 10x the retention of traditional MOOCs, reached entirely new audiences of first-time online learners, and fostered an environment that learners, facilitators, and host institutions are eager to repeat.

Built on open source technology and utilizing free online educational resources such as MOOCs, Learning Circles connect individuals directly to high-quality learning experiences, for free. Check out a selection of courses we've used in the past.

We believe that anybody can run a Learning Circle, and so we have developed a number of tools to get you started. These tools include a Learning Circle webpage generator, an online facilitator dashboard to interface with learners, a curated course list, and a facilitator handbook that includes 40 pages of great tips, tricks, checklists and templates to help you advertise, prepare for, and run your Learning Circle.

We're a small 501(c)3 non-profit dedicated to improving access to education. We work closely with the global P2PU community to deliver our programs and redefine higher education, both online and offline. Sound good? Then we'd love to meet you.

Want help integrating Learning Circles into your organization? P2PU consults for organizations looking to get started. Our services include: facilitator workshops, course development, custom program design, ongoing facilitator support, web hosting, and software integration.

Founded in 2009, Peer 2 Peer University is a non-profit organization that facilitates learning outside of institutional walls. Designing and leveraging open education tools and resources, P2PU strives to cultivate a high-quality, low-cost model for lifelong learning.

We’re updating our phone system, so we may be unreachable during non-business hours from Tuesday, Sep. 20 to Thursday, Sep. 22. If you can’t wait that long, feel free to email us. Sorry for the inconvenience!

Lending Club is the world’s largest online marketplace connecting borrowers and investors. We’re transforming the banking system to make credit more affordable and investing more rewarding. We operate at a lower cost than traditional bank lending programs and pass the savings on to borrowers in the form of lower rates and to investors in the form of solid returns.

PeerJS wraps the browser's WebRTC implementation to provide a complete, configurable, and easy-to-use peer-to-peer connection API. Equipped with nothing but an ID, a peer can create a P2P data or media stream connection to a remote peer. Downloads [ view changelog ] Stable (0.3.14) Stable (min 0.3.14) Setup Include the library <script src=""></script> Create a peer Get a free API key . Your id only needs to be unique to the namespace of your API key.





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