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The fall marks one of the busiest times of the year for nonprofits that manage peer-to-peer fundraising campaigns, as a number of organizations host their biggest events in September and October. But if results from the spring and summer are any indication, many groups should be prepared to temper their expectations. An informal survey of […]

DATE & TIME: TUESDAY, OCTOBER 18 AT 2:00 PM ET Learn how the Epilepsy Foundation has augmented their walk series with a variety of peer-to-peer fundraising options that allow their supporters to unleash their fundraising creativity in support of the organization. These include unique fundraisers, like Lemonade for Livy (that has become an international awareness and fundraiser with kids), the […]

Thursday, October 6, 2016, at 2 p.m. ET As do-it-yourself fundraising campaigns grow in popularity, nonprofits are quickly learning that these campaigns can’t achieve success by following the traditional donor-stewardship playbook. Since they aren’t built around fixed events, do-it-yourself campaigns follow different rules. To be successful, nonprofits need to take innovative approaches to help DIY participants […]

When American decathlete Ashton Eaton and Canadian heptathlete Brianne Theisen-Eaton begin their quests for gold next week at the 2016 Summer Olympics, they will have big fans at World Vision. Ashton and Brianne are vying to become the first married couple from different countries to win medals in the same Olympics. If they are successful in their […]

DATE & TIME: Wednesday, September 28 at 2:00 pm ET Does this describe your organization? Craving training and support Doing more with less Trying to determine org structure Seeking efficiencies Needing motivation Hoping for stronger team communication and collaboration Listen as The ALS Association’s Kristin McLaughlin and ACG, Inc.’s Rachel Armbruster share key strategies to unite staff […]

The Lego Firewalk Challenge is the latest entry on the growing Big List of Peer-to-Peer Fundraising Campaigns — a resource that catalogs all of the different ways people raise money on behalf of their favorite causes.

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This article provides an overview of peer-to-peer networking, including a description of peer-to-peer networking scenarios. This paper also describe the goals of Microsoft® Windows® Peer-to-Peer Networking and how it works, including detailed descriptions of IPv6 and NAT traversal, peer discovery and name resolution, graphing, grouping, replicated storage, and searching.

Peer-to-Peer Networking Overview
Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking
How Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking Works
Summary
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Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor, vast memory, and a large hard disk, none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications.

RTC exists today. Computer users can chat and have voice or video conversations with their peers today. However, many of the existing programs and their communications protocols rely on servers to function. If you are participating in an ad-hoc wireless network or are a part of an isolated network, you are unable to use these RTC facilities. Peer-to-peer technology allows the extension of RTC technologies to these additional networking environments.

Similar to RTC, real-time game play exists today. There are many Web-based game sites that cater to the gaming community via the Internet. They offer the ability to find other gamers with similar interests and play a game together. The problem is that the game sites exist only on the Internet and are geared toward the avid gamer who wants to play against the best gamers in the world. These sites track and provide the statistics to help in the process. However, these sites do not allow a gamer to set up an ad-hoc game among friends in a variety of networking environments. Peer-to-peer networking can provide this capability.

Shared workspace applications allow for the creation of ad-hoc workgroups and then allow the workgroup owners to populate the shared workspace with the tools and content that will allow the group to solve a problem. This could include message boards, productivity tools, and files.

A subset of project workspace sharing is the ability to share files. Although this ability exists today with the current version of Windows, it can be enhanced through peer-to-peer networking to make file content available in an easy and friendly way. Allowing easy access to the incredible wealth of content at the edge of the Internet or in ad-hoc computing environments increases the value of network computing.

With wireless connectivity becoming more prevalent, peer-to-peer networking allows you to be online in a group of peers and to be able to share your experiences (such as a sunset, a rock concert, or a vacation cruise) while they are occurring.

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Peer-to-peer ( P2P ) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.

Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. [1] Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided. Emerging collaborative P2P systems are going beyond the era of peers doing similar things while sharing resources, and are looking for diverse peers that can bring in unique resources and capabilities to a virtual community thereby empowering it to engage in greater tasks beyond those that can be accomplished by individual peers, yet that are beneficial to all the peers. [2]

While P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, [3] the architecture was popularized by the file sharing system Napster , originally released in 1999. The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.

While P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, [3] the concept was popularized by file sharing systems such as the music-sharing application Napster (originally released in 1999). [ citation needed ] The peer-to-peer movement allowed millions of Internet users to connect "directly, forming groups and collaborating to become user-created search engines, virtual supercomputers, and filesystems." [4] The basic concept of peer-to-peer computing was envisioned in earlier software systems and networking discussions, reaching back to principles stated in the first Request for Comments , RFC 1 . [5]

Therefore, a distributed messaging system that is often likened as an early peer-to-peer architecture was established: USENET . USENET was developed in 1979 and is a system that enforces a decentralized model of control. The basic model is a client-server model from the user or client perspective that offers a self-organizing approach to newsgroup servers. However, news servers communicate with one another as peers to propagate Usenet news articles over the entire group of network servers. The same consideration applies to SMTP email in the sense that the core email-relaying network of mail transfer agents has a peer-to-peer character, while the periphery of e-mail clients and their direct connections is strictly a client-server relationship. [ citation needed ]

In May 1999, with millions more people on the Internet, Shawn Fanning introduced the music and file-sharing application called Napster. [7] Napster was the beginning of peer-to-peer networks, as we know them today, where "participating users establish a virtual network, entirely independent from the physical network, without having to obey any administrative authorities or restrictions." [7]

A peer-to-peer network is designed around the notion of equal peer nodes simultaneously functioning as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from the client–server model where communication is usually to and from a central server. A typical example of a file transfer that uses the client-server model is the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) service in which the client and server programs are distinct: the clients initiate the transfer, and the servers satisfy these requests.

Unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay network by design, but rather are formed by nodes that randomly form connections to each other. [11] ( Gnutella , Gossip , and Kazaa are examples of unstructured P2P protocols). [12]

If you are the person who love to download and sharing on from Internet then you must have downloading software .
One of the ways to share your software, music, videos etc with your friends is by peer to Peer (p2p)  file sharing software .

P2P file sharing software downloads file much faster then compare to some other ways like normal downloads. P2P file sharing software is best for larger files to download. You can stop and resume downloading files this gives you control on downloads. .codefear-top-368 { width: 200px; height: 200px; } @media(min-width: 500px) { .codefear-top-368 { width: 200px; height: 200px; } } @media(min-width: 800px) { .codefear-top-368 { width: 336px; height: 280px; } } (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

1.  BitTorrent – One of the most popular P2P downloading software. BitTorrent is often used for distribution of very large files, very popular files and files available for free, as it is a lot cheaper, faster and more efficient to distribute files using BitTorrent than a regular download.

2.  µTorrent – Another popular P2P downloading software. µTorrent, including bandwidth prioritization, scheduling, RSS auto-downloading and Mainline DHT (compatible with BitComet). Additionally, µTorrent supports the Protocol Encryption joint specification (compatible with Azureus 2.4.0.0 and above, BitComet 0.63 and above) and peer exchange.

3.  LimeWire – LimeWire is one of the fastest P2P program. It comes in free and paid version. It provide you faculty like Create a quicklist in your library, Share files with your friends, Virus and security protections etc.

4.  eMule – eMule is one of the biggest and most reliable peer-to-peer file sharing clients around the world. Many developers contribute to the project, so the network gets more and more efficient with every new version.

5.  FrostWire – Great P2P sharing software comes with some great features. Completely Free & Open Source, iTunes™ Compatible, Faster Download Speeds, No Spyware. No Adware. Guaranteed, Bittorrent Support etc.

Shareaza and iMesh are exactly the same as bearshare. Same screen exact same results come up when you search for the same thing. Where’s the great up and comer after limewire??? All these programs suck big time!!

Een peer-to-peernetwerk (of p2p ; Engels: P2P) is een logisch netwerk van computers die in dit netwerk gelijkwaardig zijn, en diensten aan elkaar kunnen aanbieden. Het woord komt van het Engelse peer , dat 'gelijke' betekent. Een dergelijk netwerk kent geen vaste werkstations en servers zoals in het client-servermodel , maar heeft een aantal gelijkwaardige aansluitingen die functioneren als server en als werkstation voor de andere aansluitingen in het netwerk.

Ook kan de term toegepast worden op een onbepaald aantal netwerktechnologieën en -applicaties die gebruikmaken van dit model (zoals het NNTP -protocol, dat gebruikt wordt door Usenet - nieuwsgroepen ). De term wordt het meest gebruikt als men het heeft over uitwisselingsnetwerken , zoals Gnutella , FastTrack , WinMX , BitTorrent en eDonkey2000 . Deze netwerken bieden de mogelijkheid om gratis en grotendeels anoniem bestanden of delen van bestanden te versturen tussen computers die zijn verbonden met het internet . De Engelse benaming hiervoor is filesharing .

De toegangsregelingen tot een netwerk zijn geen deel van de definitie van peer-to-peer. Zo is het GigaTribe netwerk pas toegangkelijk via een contactpersoon die dit mogelijk maakt terwijl andere netwerken voor iedereen open zijn.

Peer-to-peer file sharing is the distribution and sharing of digital media using peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technology. P2P file sharing allows users to access media files such as books, music, movies, and games using a P2P software program that searches for other connected computers on a P2P network to locate the desired content. [1] The nodes (peers) of such networks are end-user computers and distribution servers (not required).

Peer-to-peer file sharing technology has evolved through several design stages from the early networks like Napster , which popularized the technology, to the later models like the BitTorrent protocol. Microsoft uses it for Update distribution (Windows 10) and online playing games (e.g. the mmorpg Skyforge [2] ) use it as their content distribution network for downloading large amounts of data without incurring the dramatic costs for bandwidth inherent when providing just a single source.

Several factors contributed to the widespread adoption and facilitation of peer-to-peer file sharing. These included increasing Internet bandwidth, the widespread digitization of physical media, and the increasing capabilities of residential personal computers. Users were able to transfer either one or more files from one computer to another across the Internet through various file transfer systems and other file-sharing networks. [1]

Peer-to-peer file sharing became popular in 1999 with the introduction of Napster , a file sharing application and a set of central servers that linked people who had files with those who requested files. The central index server indexed the users and their shared content. When someone searched for a file, the server searched all available copies of that file and presented them to the user. The files would be transferred directly between the two private computers. A limitation was that only music files could be shared. [3] Because this process occurred on a central server, however, Napster was held liable for copyright infringement and shut down in July 2001. It later reopened as a pay service. [4]

Napster and eDonkey2000 , which both used a central server-based model, may be classified as the first generation of P2P systems. [5] These systems relied on the operation of the respective central servers, and thus were susceptible to centralized shutdown. The second generation of P2P file sharing encompasses networks like Kazaa, Gnutella and Gnutella2 , which are able to operate without any central servers, thus eliminating the central vulnerability by connecting users remotely to each other. [6]

Peer-to-peer file sharing is also efficient in terms of cost. [7] [8] The system administration overhead is smaller because the user is the provider and usually the provider is the administrator as well. Hence each network can be monitored by the users themselves. At the same time, large servers sometimes require more storage and this increases the cost since the storage has to be rented or bought exclusively for a server. However, usually peer-to-peer file sharing does not require a dedicated server . [9]

There is still ongoing discussion about the economic impact of P2P file sharing. Norbert Michel, a policy analyst at the Heritage Foundation , said that because of "econometric and data issues, studies thus far have produced disparate estimates of file sharing's impact on album sales." [10]

In the book The Wealth of Networks , Yochai Benkler states that peer-to-peer file sharing is economically efficient and that the users pay the full transaction cost and marginal cost of such sharing even if it "throws a monkey wrench into the particular way in which our society has chosen to pay musicians and re-cording executives. This trades off efficiency for longer-term incentive effects for the recording industry. However, it is efficient within the normal meaning of the term in economics in a way that it would not have been had Jack and Jane used subsidized computers or network connections". [11]

Millions of people used to use free P2P file sharing  networks and software client programs every day to swap music, video and other files over the Internet. While some P2P services were shut down and other forms of file swapping took their place, many of your favorite P2P programs still exist in one form or another. Is yours on the list?

The original BitTorrent  client first appeared on the scene in 2001 and quickly attracted a loyal following among those interested in sharing movies and television programs in the form of torrent files . It is one of the few free P2P software applications from this era still in widespread use. Various other alternative clients like Azureus, BitComet and BitTornado also existed but have fallen out of popularity. See also -  Best BitTorrent Clients . More »

Ares Galaxy  was developed in 2002, first supporting the Gnutella  network and later the separate Ares P2P network. Ares Galaxy was designed to offer decentralized music and other file swapping support with built-in chat. A spin-off client for the Ares network called Warez was also developed. See -  Ares Free Downloads . More »

The eMule project started with the goal of building an improved free eDonkey client. eMule achieved a large user base, connecting both to the eDonkey P2P file sharing network and a few others, although it lost much of its user base as other P2P networks were shut down. Today, eMule supports the BitTorrent network. More »

The Shareaza client search engine connects to multiple P2P networks including BitTorrent and Gnutella. It received a version update in late 2014, but much of this client's packaging looks like its straight out of 2002. See shareaza.sourceforge.net  for details and download info. More »

eDonkey/Overnet was a P2P file sharing network especially popular in Europe. The  eDonkey P2P client  connected to both the eDonkey and Overnet networks which combined support a large base of users and files. A separate Overnet client existed at one time some years ago but was merged into eDonkey, which ran on Windows, Linux and Mac computers.

The  Limewire  P2P file sharing program connected to Gnutella and ran on WIndows, Linux and Mac computers. Limewire was recognized for its simple user interface along with good search and download performance.

WinMX  ran only on the Windows family of operating systems, but this client and its associated WPNP network was hugely popular during the mid-2000s. WinMX was known for its relatively advanced (at the time) options to help power users better manage their downloads.

 

 

 

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